Schumann’s Acculturation Model

Schumann’s Acculturation Model The Acculturation Model was developed by John H. Schumann in 1978. It is model of second language acquisition, which is based on the social psychology of acculturation. This model holds that there are social and psychological variables that combine into a single one, acculturation. Learners learn the target language while they acculturate the group of the target language. Therefore, the social distance factor matters a lot in this model or view of second language acquisition. According to this model, the more a person is in proximity with the culture of the target language the more he/she will be likely to be proficient in that target language. Similarly, if a person has less contact with the culture of the target language, he/she is less likely able to be pr...[Read More]

Krashen’s Input Hypothesis

Stephen Krashen developed the Input Hypothesis in the 1970s. This model was developed in the wake of Chomsky’s UG. In the beginning Krashen named it “Monitor Model”. He named it “Input Hypothesis” later on. Krashen’s model is said to be based on the notion that there are two systems for learners of second language acquisition. The first is acquisition and the second is learning. So the learned system in this situation acts as a monitor. Following pictures shows Krashen’s model. The Five Hypotheses 1. First Hypothesis In fact, Krashen’s model consists of five hypotheses. This first hypothesis acquisition learning hypothesis. This hypothesis holds that there are different ways for the learners to get competence. For example, one of such ways is the “exposure” in which a learner comes in cont...[Read More]

Language teaching approaches and Grammar Translation Method (GTM)

It is true that language teaching and learning has been difficult because the origin and change in various teaching and learning methods supports it. If it had been so easy, there would not have been any need of new approaches.   The famous approaches are; Grammar Translation Method Audio-lingual Method Oral Method Direct Method   I would prefer to use the Grammar Translation Method. GTM is a classic method of teaching. Among all the other approaches, it is the oldest. Originally, it was used to teach the Latin and Greek languages which were influential language of their time. Also, among all the other approaches, this approach sustained for a very long period in the teaching of language, especially in Pakistan where it is still widely used in a large number of schools. Strategie...[Read More]

functions of language proposed by the structural linguist Roman Jakobson

Roman Jackabson was a famous linguist in the Russian formalism period. He proposed six functions of language that are; Referential function Emotive function Conative function Poetic function Phatic function Metalingual function 1. Referential function This function of language indicates that language is used to point out the things in the real world. It is used to refer to event, idea, happenings and entities. For example, we use language to talk about the people, the places and locations etc. so whenever language is used to give reference about entities which may be concrete or abstract the language is in fact functioning as referential device. 2. Emotive function Other than pointing out things in the real world, language is also used to express our emotions; that how feel, how it feels l...[Read More]

Diachronic Study: Diachronic Changes in English

Diachronic Study: Diachronic study is the historical study of language. Diachronic is contrasted with synchronic which is the study of language at the present time. Diachronic is the study of language that studies how language changed or evolved over time. So diachronic study is synonymous with historical study. It takes the history of language into account.   Diachronic Changes in English: English have observed changes on all the linguistic levels i.e. phonetics, in phonology, in morphology, in syntax, in semantics. English today is totally different from what it was a thousand years ago. What types of changes a languages can undertake? A language can undertake the following changes both synchronically (changes happening at present) and diachronically (changes happened in the past, h...[Read More]

Language Change in Linguistics

Why do languages change? Is it necessary for the language to change? Language change is not only essential because it is required for a language to be changed as the other changes happen in the society but also it is natural for languages. Humans live in the form of societies and these societies keep on changing as the time passes. To meet the changing needs of a society, language also changes. For example, most linguistic changes which are related to the vocabulary are the direct result of technological advancement. As the science progressed and new things were invented, so were the new words for these things. Language also changes when it comes in to contact with other languages. This contact may for the trade purposes or due to the influence of some other language whose speakers are dev...[Read More]

Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Emotion Stylistics: An Analysis of Urdu Poems [Zubair A. Bajwa]

Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Emotion Stylistics: An Analysis of Urdu Poems [Zubair A. Bajwa]   Abstract   This study has undertaken metaphorical analysis of poetry with the help of Conceptual Metaphor Theory of cognitive stylistics by blending it with the newly emerged approach Emotional Stylistics (Nørgaard, Montoro, & Busse, 2010). The objective is to find out how metaphors are used as a stylistic choice and device to touch the emotions of the readers and achieve the emotive function in natural languages which is believed to be connected with cognition. The focus is also to explain the relation between metaphors and emotive function (Jakobson, 1958) or meaning of language. Two concurrent Urdu poems were selected as data for analysis. Analysis was done to find out the rela...[Read More]

Critical Appreciation of the Poem “A Street Revisited” by Daud kamal

 Critical Appreciation of the Poem “A Street Revisited” by Daud kamal ABSTRACT This assignment aims to do the critical appreciation of the poem “A Street Revisited” by Daud kamal. It checks sociocultural background of the idea used in poetry, style used by poet and also the connotational and denotational meaning of the poem.   Poem A white pigeon comes down a stairway one step a time. Leaning against a stone wall, an old beggar rearranges his crutches. Scruffy children (one wipes his nose on his sleeve) play marbles in a shrinking patch of a sunlight.   Quite a bit seems to have changed in these thirty years. Tourists stay longer and have more to spend. Cinema posters are more provocative than ever. Coke has replaced ice-sherbet And gas-lamps now are seldom seen.   Beyond th...[Read More]

Love Metal: A Formalist Study of Gone with the Sin by His Infernal Majesty (HIM)

ABSTRACT This paper aims to do the formalist analysis of the lyrics of song Gone with the sin by HIM (His Infernal Majesty) band. The paper will look at how literary devices can be creatively used in poetic/figurative language and it will also point out the element of defamiliarization in the lyrics of song. It will involve conception of poetic deviation from the normal use of language. It will discuss the creative use of literary devices and blending of two different genres, hence leading to cross genre. Keywords: Russian Formalism, Figurative Language, Poetic Language, Literature and Music, Cross Genre, Literary Devices   Russian formalism is a literary school of thought. It was established in 1920’s and was forcefully deteriorated in 1930’s. It was initiated by Boris Eichenbaum, Ro...[Read More]

What is Postcolonial Theory: a comment on Spivak, Bhabha and Syed’s Quotations in Postcolonialism

The Postcolonial Theory The postcolonial theory looks at the colonialism’s strategies of representation of the native, the epistemological underpinnings of colonial projects (colonial histories, anthropology, area studies, cartography), the feminization, marginalization and dehumanization of the native, the rise of nationalist discourse that resisted colonialism and other forms of resistance and the psychological effects of colonialism on both the colonizer and the colonized. Gayatri Chakaravorty Spivak talks about subalternism. The term “Subaltern” is used in British army for an officer who is lower in rank whereas in postcolonial theory it refers to the person who is suppressed by a colonizer or by the dominant force in such society to which he/she is migrated. According to Spivak “The S...[Read More]

Types of Research on the Basis of Methodology

On the basis of what types of procedures a research takes on to investigate a phenomenon, it can be categorized into Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Although a third method called mix-method is also widely in use nowadays.

Main Components of a Research in an Article or Thesis/Dissertation

Components of a Research Article what are the components of a research article? Main components of a research article or dissertation include; Abstract Introduction Literature Review Research Methodology Data Presentation/Analysis Conclusion References/Bibliography It is important to keep in mind that different research types follow different formats. For example, research articles almost always include discussions on the above mentioned parts but they are not divided into separate chapters. However, dissertations have separate chapters on 2-6. Abstracts and references are added separately but they are not counted as chapters or list numbers. Therefore, the main components would look like: Abstract Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review Chapter 3: Research Methodology Chapter...[Read More]

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