Schumann’s Acculturation Model

Schumann’s Acculturation Model The Acculturation Model was developed by John H. Schumann in 1978. It is model of second language acquisition, which is based on the social psychology of acculturation. This model holds that there are social and psychological variables that combine into a single one, acculturation. Learners learn the target language while they acculturate the group of the target language. Therefore, the social distance factor matters a lot in this model or view of second language acquisition. According to this model, the more a person is in proximity with the culture of the target language the more he/she will be likely to be proficient in that target language. Similarly, if a person has less contact with the culture of the target language, he/she is less likely able to be pr...[Read More]

Krashen’s Input Hypothesis

Stephen Krashen developed the Input Hypothesis in the 1970s. This model was developed in the wake of Chomsky’s UG. In the beginning Krashen named it “Monitor Model”. He named it “Input Hypothesis” later on. Krashen’s model is said to be based on the notion that there are two systems for learners of second language acquisition. The first is acquisition and the second is learning. So the learned system in this situation acts as a monitor. Following pictures shows Krashen’s model. The Five Hypotheses 1. First Hypothesis In fact, Krashen’s model consists of five hypotheses. This first hypothesis acquisition learning hypothesis. This hypothesis holds that there are different ways for the learners to get competence. For example, one of such ways is the “exposure” in which a learner comes in cont...[Read More]

Language teaching approaches and Grammar Translation Method (GTM)

It is true that language teaching and learning has been difficult because the origin and change in various teaching and learning methods supports it. If it had been so easy, there would not have been any need of new approaches.   The famous approaches are; Grammar Translation Method Audio-lingual Method Oral Method Direct Method   I would prefer to use the Grammar Translation Method. GTM is a classic method of teaching. Among all the other approaches, it is the oldest. Originally, it was used to teach the Latin and Greek languages which were influential language of their time. Also, among all the other approaches, this approach sustained for a very long period in the teaching of language, especially in Pakistan where it is still widely used in a large number of schools. Strategie...[Read More]

functions of language proposed by the structural linguist Roman Jakobson

Roman Jackabson was a famous linguist in the Russian formalism period. He proposed six functions of language that are; Referential function Emotive function Conative function Poetic function Phatic function Metalingual function 1. Referential function This function of language indicates that language is used to point out the things in the real world. It is used to refer to event, idea, happenings and entities. For example, we use language to talk about the people, the places and locations etc. so whenever language is used to give reference about entities which may be concrete or abstract the language is in fact functioning as referential device. 2. Emotive function Other than pointing out things in the real world, language is also used to express our emotions; that how feel, how it feels l...[Read More]

Diachronic Study: Diachronic Changes in English

Diachronic Study: Diachronic study is the historical study of language. Diachronic is contrasted with synchronic which is the study of language at the present time. Diachronic is the study of language that studies how language changed or evolved over time. So diachronic study is synonymous with historical study. It takes the history of language into account.   Diachronic Changes in English: English have observed changes on all the linguistic levels i.e. phonetics, in phonology, in morphology, in syntax, in semantics. English today is totally different from what it was a thousand years ago. What types of changes a languages can undertake? A language can undertake the following changes both synchronically (changes happening at present) and diachronically (changes happened in the past, h...[Read More]

Language Change in Linguistics

Why do languages change? Is it necessary for the language to change? Language change is not only essential because it is required for a language to be changed as the other changes happen in the society but also it is natural for languages. Humans live in the form of societies and these societies keep on changing as the time passes. To meet the changing needs of a society, language also changes. For example, most linguistic changes which are related to the vocabulary are the direct result of technological advancement. As the science progressed and new things were invented, so were the new words for these things. Language also changes when it comes in to contact with other languages. This contact may for the trade purposes or due to the influence of some other language whose speakers are dev...[Read More]

Six Types of Verbs in English as Analyzed in Syntax

Functional Categories of Words Depending on the type of functions, words are divided into two categories; lexical words functional words Lexical Vs Functional Categories of Words The function of  some words is to convey the meaningful content such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions. While the function of other words such as articles, conjunctions is to convey the grammatical information in the sentence. The words which are adjectives, nouns, verbs, adverbs, and prepositions belong to the lexical category and the words that convey grammatical information belong the functional category of words. Types of Verbs Verbs belong to the lexical category of words. Because different verbs require different types of complements to follow them, therefore, they can be categorised into si...[Read More]

History of Corpus Linguistics

History of Corpus Linguistics It was in the 1960s when the idea of corpus was conceived. Brown Corpus was the first electronically stored written corpus that was developed by Nelson Francis and Henry Kucera at Brown University.

Lexis, lexeme and lemma

Lexis, lexeme and lemma Lexis, lexeme and lemma are the technical terms used in the syntax which is the core branch of linguistics. Lexis Lexis is another term that is used to refer to the vocabulary. In syntax, this technical term means all the list of words or vocabulary in a language. So, basically, lexis can be a synonym of vocabulary. The term “lexis” is a technical one whereas “vocabulary” is a general term for the list of all words.   Lexeme A lexeme is any form of a  head word that is related it as a UNIT OF MEANING. Therefore, when you refer to the lexeme, you are actually referring to a form of a word that is semantically related. For example, write, writes, wrote, writing are the forms the word “write”.   Lemma Lemma is also related ...[Read More]

Speech Act Theory of Pragmatics

Speech Act Theory of Pragmatics Speech Act Theory in pragmatics states that language is the tool of getting things done in the real world. You do something or perform a task when someone asks you to. For example, if your friends asks you to turn the light on, you would go and turn the button on. So, you have performed an action- an action that was carried out with the help of language. This theory was  presented by J. L. Austin, who was a philosopher, in his book “How to Do Things with Words”. which consists of three types of acts; locutionary illocutionary perlocutionary   Later, John Searl described and categorized these speech acts into five (or six) types that are based on what kind of meaning is conveyed. These are; Representative Declaratives Commisives Directives Ex...[Read More]

Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics

Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics Anthropological linguistics is a sub-branch, but not core field, of linguistics. It is concerned with studying the relationship between human language and their cultures. It emerged as an interdisciplinary field out of the relation between linguistics and anthropology. Anthropological linguistics is contrasted with linguistic anthropology which is a branch of anthropology.